When matter changes from one state to another it is called a phase transition. Examples include:
There are many examples of matter going through each of these transitions.
Examples of Gas to Solid (Deposition)
Under certain circumstances, gas can transform directly into a solid. This process is called deposition.
- Water vapor to ice - Water vapor transforms directly into ice without becoming a liquid, a process that often occurs on windows during the winter months.
- Physical vapor to film - Thin layers of material known as "film" are deposited onto a surface using a vaporized form of the film.
Examples of Gas to Liquid (Condensation)
- Water vapor to dew - Water vapor turns from a gas into a liquid, such as dew on the morning grass.
- Water vapor to liquid water - Water vapor fogs up glasses when moving into a warm room after being in the cold
- Water vapor to liquid water - Water vapor forms water droplets on the glass of a cold beverage.
Examples of Liquid to Gas (Vaporization)
- Water to steam - Water is vaporized when it is boiled on the stove to cook some pasta, and much of it forms into a thick steam.
- Water evaporates - Water evaporates from a puddle or a pool during a hot summer’s day.
Examples of Liquid to Solid Phase Transition (Freezing)
- Water to ice - Water becomes cold enough that it turns into ice. In fact, every known liquid (except for helium) is known to freeze in low enough temperatures.
- Liquid to crystals - Most liquids freeze by a process that is known as "crystallization, " whereby the liquid forms into what is known in the scientific world as a "crystalline solid."
Examples of Solid to Liquid (Melting)
- Solid to liquid - Melting occurs when something that is solid turns back into a liquid; it is the opposite of freezing.
- Ice to water - Ice melts back into water when it is left out at temperatures above the freezing point of 32 degrees.
- Rocks to lava - Rocks in volcanoes can be heated until they are molten lava.
- Metal to molten liquid - Metals such as steel and bronze can be molten down. They can also be reformed as solids.
Examples of Solid to Gas (Sublimation)
- Dry Ice - Solid carbon dioxide is known as "dry ice" and sublimates at room temperature.
- Freeze-drying - Water can be sublimated in a food product by using a vacuum.
Now you have some examples of gas to solid and can better understand how transitions occur between different states of matter.